italianoenglishfrançaisdeutschespañolportuguês
Language
Search
  • Enoforum 2017: PROGRAM AT A GLANCE
    Vicenza, Italy, from 16 to 18 May
    a very interesting program has been prepared offering a 360 degrees view on the main issues related to the viticultural and oenological research.
    Published on: 01/04/2017
  • TECHNICAL ARTICLE: Technologies for the precise application of pesticides into vineyards
    Andrew LANDERS, Tomas PALLEJA CABRE , Jordi LLORENS; NYSAES, Cornell University, USA - Lleida University, Spain
    The application of pesticides has been of concern for many years, particularly methods of reducing drift and improving deposition. There are many interrelated factors which affect spray application...
    Published on: 07/02/2017

Synthetic genome engineering forging new frontiers for wine yeast

Isak S. Pretorius (2016); Critical Reviews in Biotechnology, DOI: 10.1080/07388551.2016.1214945

Over the past 15 years, the seismic shifts caused by the convergence of biomolecular, chemical, physical, mathematical, and computational sciences alongside cutting-edge developments in information technology and engineering have erupted into a new field of scientific endeavor dubbed Synthetic Biology.

Recent rapid advances in high-throughput DNA sequencing and DNA synthesis techniques are enabling the design and construction of new biological parts (genes), devices (gene networks) and modules (biosynthetic pathways), and the redesign of biological systems (cells and organisms) for useful purposes.

In 2014, the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae became the first eukaryotic cell to be equipped with a fully functional synthetic chromosome. This was achieved following the synthesis of the first viral (poliovirus in 2002 and bacteriophage Phi-X174 in 2003) and bacterial (Mycoplasma genitalium in 2008 and Mycoplasma mycoides in 2010) genomes, and less than two decades after revealing the full genome sequence of a laboratory (S288c in 1996) and wine (AWRI1631 in 2008) yeast strain.

A large international project – the Synthetic Yeast Genome (Sc2.0) Project – is now underway to synthesize all 16 chromosomes (12 Mb carrying 6000 genes) of the sequenced S288c laboratory strain by 2018. If successful, S. cerevisiae will become the first eukaryote to cross the horizon of in silico design of complex cells through de novo synthesis, reshuffling, and editing of genomes.

In the meantime, yeasts are being used as cell factories for the semi-synthetic production of high-value compounds, such as the potent antimalarial artemisinin, and food ingredients, such as resveratrol, vanillin, stevia, nootkatone, and saffron.

As a continuum of previously genetically engineered industrially important yeast strains, precision genome engineering is bound to also impact the study and development of wine yeast strains supercharged with synthetic DNA.

The first taste of what the future holds is the de novo production of the raspberry ketone aroma compound, 4-[4- hydroxyphenyl]butan-2-one, in a wine yeast strain (AWRI1631), which was recently achieved via metabolic pathway engineering and synthetic enzyme fusion.

A peek over the horizon is revealing that the future of “Wine Yeast 2.0” is already here. Therefore, this article seeks to help prepare the wine industry – an industry rich in history and tradition on the one hand, and innovation on the other – for the inevitable intersection of the ancient art practiced by winemakers and the inventive science of pioneering “synthetic genomicists”.

It would be prudent to proactively engage all stakeholders – researchers, industry practitioners, policymakers, regulators, commentators, and consumers – in a meaningful dialog about the potential challenges and opportunities emanating from Synthetic Biology. To capitalize on the new vistas of synthetic yeast genomics, this paper presents wine yeast research in a fresh context, raises important questions and proposes new directions.

(We recommend that you consult the full text of this article)

Published on 06/02/2017
Related sheets
© All Right Reserved
powered by infonet srl piacenza
Privacy Policy
This website and its related third-party services make use of cookies necessary for the purposes described in the cookie policy. If you want to learn more about cookies or how to disable them (either totally or partially), please see the cookie policy. By closing this banner, scrolling through this page, clicking on a link or continuing navigation in any other way, you consent to the use of cookies.
More informationOK

- A +