Wine authenticity is a major concern worldwide, with around 5% of the wines being mislabelled and sold in secondary markets. Thus, methods suitable to combat some fraudulent practices in the wine sector are imperative.
DNA-based methodologies are a reliable mean of tracking wine varietal composition. However, DNA recovery from wine samples is very difficult and yields very fragmented DNA molecules, requiring the use of DNA markers that are both highly informative and small sized.
Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) markers have demonstrated to be highly recommended in forensic samples, and have been widely applied to grapevine varietal identification, joining the two requests necessary for the development of a DNA-based authenticity system.
High resolution melting (HRM) represents a method that enables the genotyping of SNPs in a large number of samples and is highly reproducible between labs. HRM analysis is based on the generation of different melting-curve profiles as a result of sequence variation present in the double-stranded DNA.
The HRM assay designed was able to discriminate among two wine samples that only differ on a single position. This sets the basis for the implementation of a grapevine varietal identification scheme in wine samples.
Article based on the paper presented at the SIVE OENOPPIA Awards (12th edition of Enoforum; Vicenza, Italy, May 21-23, 2019)