The polysaccharide content of wine is generally assumed to originate from grapes and yeasts, independent of bacterial metabolism, except for the action of certain spoilage species. This study shows that malolactic fermentation (MLF) significantly modifies the soluble polysaccharide (SP) concentration of various red Bordeaux wines. Wines with the highest initial SP concentration go on to present decreased SP concentration, whereas those with the lowest initial SP concentration rather go on to have a higher SP concentration after MLF. These tendencies were observed whatever the Oenococcus oeni strain (indigenous or starter) used for MLF. Neutral and charged SPs were affected, but to a degree that depended on the microorganisms driving the MLF. The SP modifications were directly linked to bacterial development, because non MLF controls did not present any significant change of SP concentration. (We recommend that you consult the full text of this article. Original title …)