In wineries, unwanted microorganisms present not only hygienic problems but also have a negative influence on wine quality. An evaluation of Austrian/Styrian wine cellars with regard to the volume and the composition of the mycoflora is very important both for the process of wine production and for occupational safety. Thirty-six wine cellars of 20 vintners were investigated with regard to microorganisms in the air and on material surfaces. Moreover, the presence of trichloroanisole in the air was determined by means of solid-phase micro-extraction. Microorganisms were sampled using the six-stage Andersen-Cascade impactor. The results showed that the concentrations of xerophilic fungi in the air of cellars with large visible mold areas (> 80%) reached values up to 1.4 × 104 colony forming units per m³. In the wine cellars fourteen predominant fungal genera were found in the indoor air, the most frequent was Penicillium. Trichloroanisole was detected in the air of wine cellars with large visible moldy patches. The spore concentrations in the cellar air were two times higher in cellars with Zasmidium cellare growth than in cellars without Z. cellare. These results will serve as a database for further studies (We recommend that you consult the full text of this article).