Copper (Cu) concentrations were measured in Australian vineyard soils to assess the extent and magnitude of Cu accumulation resulting from the use of Cu-based fungicides and to indicate the likely risks to long-term soil fertility. Soil samples were collected from 98 vineyards across 10 grape-growing regions of Australia and analyzed for total Cu concentrations. Ninety-six percent of vineyards surveyed had elevated Cu concentrations in soil compared to the background Cu concentrations in nearby soil in its native state. Concentrations of total B, Co, Cr, Pb, and Zn were similar to background concentrations and below reported toxicity guideline values. Cu concentrations in Australian vineyard soils were generally much lower (6–150 mg kg−1) than those reported in the soils of vineyards in parts of Europe (i.e., 130−1280 mg kg−1). Concentrations of total Cu were generally below those concentrations reported to cause lethal effects to soil invertebrates; however, Cu exceeded concentrations known to cause sublethal effects (i.e., inhibit growth, affect reproduction, induce avoidance behavior) to those (or related) invertebrates. (We recommend to read the full text article at the original source)

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