Critical fouling conditions were studied during wine cross-flow microfiltration using a multichannel ceramic membrane (0.2 μm). The aim was to determine critical operating conditions in order to limit fouling caused by wine colloids (tannins, pectin and mannoproteins) and enhance process performances. The method used is a square wave filtration based on the determination of the reversibility and irreversibility of fouling. Filtrations were performed with filtered red wine (FW) added with different concentrations of colloids. Considering FW, critical flux for irreversibility was beyond the studied range of pressure (≥1.4 × 10—4 m/s). No clear critical flux could be determined for any of the tested molecules in the studied range of pressure. On the other hand, an upper limit of fluxes range has been identified (below which critical flux could be found). Irreversible fouling always takes place from the beginning of the filtrations and even at low pressures. For FW containing 0.2 g/l mannoprotein and 0.5 g/l pectin, a loss of average fluxes is observed beyond a given limit of transmembrane pressure. This fact was attributed to the compaction of a gel layer. Finally, a criterion (Rif/Rm ≤ 1) has been suggested to determine the so-called “threshold flux” below it, fouling remains acceptable. (We recommend that you consult the full text of this article)