Effect of culture and familiarity on wine perception: a study with Spanish and British wine experts
Alejandro SUÁREZ, Instituto de Ciencias de la Vid y del Vino (CSIC-UR-GR), Spain
Heber RODRIGUES, UK Centre for Excellence on Wine Education, Training and Research, Plumpton College, United Kingdom
Samantha WILLIAMS, UK Centre for Excellence on Wine Education, Training and Research, Plumpton College, United Kingdom
Nicolas DEPETRIS-CHAUVIN, HES-SO Haute École de Gestion de Genève, Switzerland
María Purificación FERNÁNDEZ-ZURBANO, Instituto de Ciencias de la Vid y del Vino (CSIC-UR-GR), Spain
Gregory DUNN, UK Centre for Excellence on Wine Education, Training and Research, Plumpton College, United Kingdom
María-Pilar SÁENZ-NAVAJAS, Instituto de Ciencias de la Vid y del Vino (CSIC-UR-GR), Spain
Email contact: alejandro.suarez[@]unirioja.es
AIM: Wine perception results from the interaction between the wine and its intrinsic and extrinsic characteristics and the experience , background and beliefs of the consumer [2,3]. Among all of the factors affecting wine perception, in this study we focused on culture and cognitive processes, working under the hypothesis that higher familiarity with wines would induce higher perceived quality. Furthermore, we hypothesised that culture would influence the verbalisation of wine properties associated with the different experiences of consumers from different cultures.
METHODS: A total of 18 white wines from two countries and four different grape varieties (Vitis vinifera cvs Bacchus and Ortega from the United Kingdom and Vitis vinifera cvs Verdejo and Albariño from Spain) were sensorially assessed by 32 wine experts (16 from La Rioja, Spain, and 16 from East Sussex, England). In each country, all participants were invited to describe the wines according to a labelled free sorting task and to evaluate wine quality using a categorisation task with five pre-established quality categories viz; very low, low, average, high and very high. The order of presentation of tasks was randomized in each country.
RESULTS: Two-way ANOVA with the country of origin of experts (CO) and wines (W) as independent variable showed a significant interaction effect (CO*W) for quality judgements (F = 2.019; P < 0.01), suggesting that quality scores of wines depended on the country-of-origin of experts. It was observed that only four out of the 18 wines evaluated showed significant differences in quality scores. Three of them were Spanish wines that were perceived to be of higher quality by Spanish experts, and the fourth wine was a British wine perceived to be higher in quality by British experts. These results could only partially confirm our initial hypothesis related to the impact of familiarity on increasing the perception of quality.
With regard to the groups formed through the sorting task (non-verbal strategy), both groups of experts used a similar strategy with the wines mainly separated by grape variety. Regarding the differences in the description of the wines overall, they used similar terms. The only difference observed was associated with increased use of the term “floral” by Spanish experts, while the term “flat wine” appeared more constantly in British descriptions.
CONCLUSIONS: The present work improves our knowledge of the cognitive factors and cultural aspects influencing wine perception. Familiarity with the product can affect perception of quality and the verbalisation of sensory properties among wine experts.
 S. Charters and S. Pettigrew, “The dimensions of wine quality,” Food Qual. Prefer., vol. 18, no. 7, pp. 997–1007, 2007, doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodqual.2007.04.003.
 M. P. Sáenz-Navajas, J. Ballester, C. Pêcher, D. Peyron, and D. Valentin, “Sensory drivers of intrinsic quality of red wines. Effect of culture and level of expertise.,” Food Res. Int., vol. 54, no. 2, pp. 1506–1518, 2013, doi: 10.1016/j.foodres.2013.09.048.
 J. Ballester, B. Patris, R. Symoneaux, and D. Valentin, “Conceptual vs. perceptual wine spaces: Does expertise matter?,” Food Qual. Prefer., vol. 19, pp. 267–276, 2008, doi: 10.1016/j.foodqual.2007.08.001.
Chemical and sensory diversity of regional Cabernet Sauvignon wines
Dimitra L. CAPONE, Australian Research Council Training Centre for Innovative Wine Production, and The University of Adelaide
Paul BOSS, CSIRO, and Australian Research Council Training Centre for Innovative Wine Production
Lira SOUZA GONZAGA, Australian Research Council Training Centre for Innovative Wine Production, and The University of Adelaide
Susan E. P. BASTIAN, Australian Research Council Training Centre for Innovative Wine Production, and The University of Adelaide
Ruchira RANAWEERA, Department of Wine Science, The University of Adelaide
David W. JEFFERY, Australian Research Council Training Centre for Innovative Wine Production, and The University of Adelaide
Email contact: email@example.com
AIM: To investigate chemical and sensory drivers of regional typicity of Cabernet Sauvignon from different geographical regions of Australia.
METHODS: Commercial Cabernet wines (n = 52) from Coonawarra, Margaret River, and Yarra Valley Geographical Indications of Australia, and from Bordeaux, France, were selected for extensive chemical and sensory analysis.1 A range of analytical methods were optimised to quantify a comprehensive array of volatile compounds (> 70) originating from different sources, including grape, fermentation, oak maturation, and ageing. Along with basic chemical data, measurement of non-volatile compounds such as tannins and other secondary metabolites and elements was also undertaken. Multivariate statistical analysis using partial least squares regression was applied to the combined chemical data and the sensory analysis ratings obtained through a trained descriptive analysis panel of the same wines, to determine important compounds driving relevant sensory attributes.
RESULTS: The compound 1,4-cineole, described as ‘mint’ and ‘bay leaf’, was partly responsible for separation of the Cabernet Sauvignon wines from the Australian regions, particularly from Margaret River, whereas compounds such as 4-ethylphenol and 4-ethylguaiacol were linked to the aromas of ‘earthy’ and ‘yeasty’, which drove some of the separation of Bordeaux wines from the others. Varietal thiol, 3-mercapto-1-hexanol, which is mainly associated with Sauvignon Blanc and other white wine varieties, was measured in concentrations above its aroma detection threshold in all of the wines analysed, with similar concentrations present in Bordeaux and Coonawarra wines, and significantly higher concentrations in Margaret River and Yarra Valley wines. Additionally, non-volatiles such as particular elements drove some the separation between the regions; for example strontium was present in highest concentration in the Coonawarra wines and was found at lowest concentration in the Bordeaux wines. Free anthocyanins were also found to differ between Coonawarra and Bordeaux regions, with higher concentration being measured in the latter.
CONCLUSION: In determining the influential drivers of sensory properties of regional Cabernet Sauvignon wines, this study has uncovered various volatile and non-volatile constituents that are associated with specific sensory attributes. This is an important step in being able to define and subsequently help preserve the distinctive characters associated with regional Cabernet Sauvignon wines.
1Souza Gonzaga, L., Capone, D. L., Bastian, S. E. P., Danner, L. and Jeffery, D. W. Sensory typicity of regional Australian Cabernet Sauvignon wines according to expert evaluations and descriptive analysis. Food Research International, 2020, 138, 109760
Chinese localization of wine aroma descriptors
Wen MA, School of Food & Wine, Ningxia University, P. R. China
Gang JIN, Lingsheng WEI, Xi LV, Laichao XU
School of Food & Wine, Ningxia University, P. R. China
Email contact: firstname.lastname@example.org
Wine aroma descriptors are important tools for wine evaluation. The present well-known wine aroma descriptor system was created and based on Western culture, which makes difficult for Chinese consumers to recognize and learn wine.
AIM: The aim of this study was to update the wine aroma descriptor system for Chinese.
METHODS: Fifty-four wine aroma descriptors of ‘Le nez du vin’ was used as substitution candidates. Firstly, a survey on unfamiliar aromas was distributed to 150 untrained Chinese wine consumers. Twenty attributors, such as blackcurrent buds, quince, linden, were selected as the most 17 unfamiliar. Then, a descriptive analysis was performed by trained tasting panel to substitute the targeted twenty aromas perfume. Furthermore, reference standards were looked and new le nez du vin were made. Finally, a substitution analysis was performed to replace the unknown wine aroma to the Chinese local aromas.
RESULTS: The results showed that three unfamiliar descriptors stayed as it was. Four attributors were failed to find the suitable substitutions. Thirteen terms were replaced by Chinese local aroma attributors.
CONCLUSIONS: These results confirmed that the on-going wine descriptors urgently need to be updated for Chinese consumers. A local wine aroma wheel was built and it is more convenient for Chinese to learn and communicate.
1. Noble, A.C., R. Arnold, B. Masuda, S. Pecore, J. Schmidt, and P. Stern. 1984. Progress towards a standardized system of wine aroma terminology. Am J Enol Vitic 35:107-109.
2. Noble, A.C., R.A. Arnold, J. Buechsenstein, E.J. Leach, J. Schmidt, and P.M. Stern. 1987. Modification of a standardized system of wine aroma terminology. Am J Enol Vitic 38:143-146.