There is increasing demand by the wine industry for technologies to reduce the alcohol content of wine without compromising product quality. This review describes biological-based approaches that influence ethanol yield during fermentation, most of which have attempted to partially redirect yeast metabolism away from ethanol production. Genetic engineering approaches have been used to develop yeast strains that produce less ethanol, and this has provided insight into how yeast respond to metabolic rerouting. However, public attitudes towards the use of GMOs (Genetically Modified Organisms) in food products suggests that novel yeast strains will have to be generated using non-GM approaches, such as evolutionary engineering. (We recommend that you consult the full text of this article).