Metabolomics Reveals Alterations in Both Primary and Secondary Metabolites by Wine Bacteria
Lee, JE; Hwang, GS; Lee, CH; Hong, YS. 2009.. JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD CHEMISTRY 57 (22): 10772-10783
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from Korean Meoru (Vitis coigneties) wine and identified as Lactobacillus plantarum meoru0711 (KACC 91436C). The fermentative behavior and metabolic effects of L. plantarum during malolactic fermentation (MLF) were compared with those of the commercial Oenococcus oeni strain through H-1 NMR- and GC-based metabolic profiling.
Twenty-two primary metabolites of amino acids, carbohydrates, and organic acids, and 55 secondary metabolites of volatile compounds were identified in wines by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and gas chromatography (GG), respectively.
Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that malolactic (ML)-fermented and non-ML-fermented wines, and wines ML-fermented with O. oeni and L. plantarum were clearly differentiated. Both the primary and secondary metabolites were responsible for these differentiations.
Compared to non-MLF wines, MLF wines were characterized by increased levels of primary metabolites such as lactic acid, phenylalanine, uracil, ornithine, alanine, threonine, leucine, isoleucine, and valine with decreased levels of monosaccharides, glycerol, malic, and citric acids.
In addition, higher levels of secondary metabolites such as butanal, ethyl isobutylate, isobutanol, isoamyl acetate, 2-butanoate ethyl ester, isoamyl alcohol, ethyl hexanoate, glycine, acetic acid, and benzaldehyde characterized the MLF wine.
Higher levels of primary metabolites such as tyrosine, monosaccharides, glycerol, alanine, 2,3-butanediol, valine, and leucine, and of secondary metabolites such as propyl acetate, isobutanol, isoamyl acetate, 1-butanol, ethyl hexanoate, prenyl alcohol, glycine, 2-hexen-1-ol, ethyl octanoate, acetic acid, benzaldehyde, and butyric, together with lower levels of lactic acid, were observed in the wines fermented by L. plantarum compared with those by O. oeni.
This present study demonstrates that different genera of LAB affect both the primary and second metabolites in wine. Moreover, metabolomics with multivariate statistical analysis provide insight into wine fermentation.
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Published on 10/05/2010