The efficiency of different white wine antioxidant systems in preventing aldehyde production from amino acids by oxidative processes is not well understood. The aim of this study was to assess the efficiency of sulphur dioxide alone and in combination with either glutathione, ascorbic acid or its stereoisomer erythorbic acid, in preventing formation of the sensorially important compounds methional and phenylacetaldehyde from methionine and phenylalanine in model white wine.
UHPLC, GC–MS/MS, LC–MS/MS, flow injection analysis and luminescence sensors determined both compositional changes during storage, and sulphur dioxide–aldehyde apparent equilibrium constants.
Depending on temperature (25 or 45 °C) or extent of oxygen supply, sulphur dioxide was equally or more efficient in impeding the production of methional compared to the other antioxidant systems.
For phenylacetaldehyde, erythorbic acid or glutathione with sulphur dioxide provided improved inhibition compared to sulphur dioxide alone, in conditions of limited oxygen consumption.
The results also demonstrate the extent to which sulphur dioxide addition can lower the free aldehyde concentrations to below their aroma thresholds.
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