Vineyard cover cropping is a cultural practice widely used in many of the world’s winegrowing regions being one of the most recommended practices to face climate changes and to promote vineyard environmental sustainability. The benefits of using cover crops are many ranging from environmental protection (e.g. control of soil erosion, enhancement of soil structure and biodiversity, sequestering carbon) to vineyard management, including control of vigor and improvement of berry composition.
Despite those potential benefits, the adoption of cover crops in Mediterranean non-irrigated vineyards has been limited by the concern of excessive water competition between cover crops and vines.
However the level of this competition should be better understood as in warm and dry terroirs, like the case of Mediterranean winegrowing regions, water competition by the cover crops is effective mainly during spring. During summer, the almost absence or rainfall induces the dry out of the sward vegetation which residues became dead mulch that can even reduce soil evaporation.
Furthermore, some research has also demonstrated that, after some years of competition with swards, the vines were able to develop deeper roots, therefore increasing the capacity for water extraction from deeper soil layers.
In order to further elucidate the above mentioned topics, in this paper data on water use and grapevine performance obtained in three floor management experiments (soil tillage vs. inter-row swards), carried out in three different winegrowing regions of the Mediterranean Portugal (covering rainfed and irrigated vineyards), will be presented. Discussion will be focus on water competition by the swards and corresponding effects on grapevine vigor, yield and berry composition. The effect of terroir on grapevine responses will be also underlined.
Paper presented at the XI International Terroir Congress, July 2016, McMinnville, Oregon (USA).