Stefania Christofi1; M. Dimopoulou1; A. Terpou1; S. Papanikolaou1; G.J. Nychas1; C.I., Bogdan
1Department of Food Science & Human Nutrition, Agricultural University of Athens, 75 Iera Odos, 11855 Athens, Greece
2 Romania Academy - Iasi Branch, Research Centre for Oenology, 9 M. Sadoveanu Alley, Iasi 700490, Romania
3 University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Iasi, 3 M. Sadoveanu Alley, Iasi, 700490, Romania
Email contact: stamatina[@]aua.gr
Today, there is need to design, produce and label terroir wines, with unique organoleptic properties and more “attractive to consumers”. For this purpose, two Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains (Sa and Sb) isolated during spontaneous fermentations were used for white wine production from the Assyrtiko grape of Santorini. A third commercial strain was used as control. Two concentrations of Yeast Assimilable Nitrogen (YAN) and DAP (diammonium phosphate) were added to the must (150mg/L and 250mg/L) in order to evaluate the effcet of nitrogen content on the final wine quality.
Both analytical chemical methods (HPLC, GC-MS, classical eonological methods) and sensory analysis were employed to assess the chemical composition of the wines and their organoleptic character. In addition fermentation kinetics were monitored throughout the experiment.
By the second day of fermentation all three strains had consumed approximately 75% of amino acids. Differences among strains were observed concerning inorganic nitrogen requirements. Sa strain consumed it faster and was the first to compete fermentation independently from the level of added YAN. The commercial strain was characterized by the highest concentration of residual sugars, followed by Sb and Sa. Alcohol content ranged from 12.8-13.1% vol. Sb and the commercial one produced significant higher amounts of glycerol (about 0.7g/L), especially in the case of lower YAN. Sb also produced significant higher amounts of higher alcohols (1.9-fold) and ketones (5.6-fold) but significant lower amounts of esters (1.2-fold) in comparison with the commercial strain. Sa was characterized by significant higher concentrations of fatty acids (2.1-fold) and lower acetic acid (1.6-fold) production. No statistically important differences were observed in the oligomeric phenolic compound content of the samples. Both indigenous strains scored better results in overall aroma quality, and more specifically in “fruity”, “floral” descriptors compared with control. They were also preferred over the commercial strain as far as mouthfeel, body and acidity are concerned.
The evaluation of both chemical and sensory data indicated the potential of the indeginous starins for commercial wine production with unique characteristics and high quality.