Dolores PÉREZ1,2; Marie DENAT3; José María HERAS1; José Manuel GUILLAMÓN4; Vicente FERREIRA3; Amparo, QUEROL4
1 Lallemand Bio S.L., Barcelona, Spain
2 Centro de Estudios de Enología, Estación Experimental Agropecuaria Mendoza, Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria (INTA) 5507, Mendoza, Argentina
3 Laboratory for Aroma Analysis and Enology (LAAE), Universidad de Zaragoza, Instituto Agroalimentario de Arago´n (IA2) (UNIZAR-CITA), Zaragoza (Spain)
4 Departamento de Biotecnología, Instituto de Agroquímica y Tecnología de los Alimentos (IATA), CSIC, 46980 Valencia, Spain
Email contact: doloresperez[@]iata.csic.es
AIM: Explore the variability and contribution of non-wine Saccharomyces yeasts and bottle aging on the release and generation of aromas of semi-synthetic Tempranillo wines, together with an in-depth study of the capacity of these strains to provide good fermentative and oenological qualities.
METHODS: 16 Saccharomyces yeasts strains of different species and origins performed fermentations in semi-synthetic must containing polyphenolic and aroma precursor Tempranillo extract. The resulting wines were subjected to accelerated anoxic aging simulating bottle aging. The aroma compounds released during fermentation and those contained in young and aged wines and must were liquid-liquid extracted and analysed by Gas Chromatography-Olfactometry (GC-O), GC-FID (flame ionization detector) and GC-Mass Spectrometry.
RESULTS: Among the compounds volatilised during fermentation, one of varietal origin was tentatively detected, 4-methyl-4-mercaptopenta-2-one (4MMP). The natural yeasts likely to introduce positive aroma notes to young and aged Tempranillo wines were E1 (S. eubayanus), C3, C2 (S. cerevisiae), K3 (S. kudriavzevii) and U1 (S. uvarum) by the highest production of ethyl esters, lactones, β-ionone and terpenes related to floral and fruity aroma. After aging, β-damascenone, riesling acetal, vitispirane A/B, linanool oxide and massoia lactone were found, nerol was no longer detected and β-linalool was not affected. In addition, there was a modulating effect by the yeasts, increasing or decreasing certain compounds favoured by aging. Regarding this effect, C2 strain excelled due to the large increase in ethyl leucate compared to its young wine and the rest of the aged wines.
CONCLUSIONS: Most compounds were highly increased by aging while yeasts at species and strain level were able to modulate the varietal and fermentative aroma profile differentially in both young and aged semi-synthetic Tempranillo wines.
Denat, M., Pérez, D., Heras, J.M., Querol, A., Ferreira, V., 2021. The effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains carrying alcoholic fermentation on the fermentative and varietal aroma profiles of young and aged Tempranillo wines. Food Chem. 9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fochx.2021.100116
Alegre, Y., Arias-Pérez, I., Hernández-Orte, P., Ferreira, V., 2020. Development of a new strategy for studying the aroma potential of winemaking grapes through the accelerated hydrolysis of phenolic and aromatic fractions (PAFs). Food Res. Int. 127, 108728. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2019.108728
Pérez, D., Jaehde, I., Guillamón, J.M., Heras, J.M., 2021. Screening of Saccharomyces strains for the capacity to produce desirable fermentative compounds under the influence of different nitrogen sources in synthetic wine fermentations 97. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fm.2021.103763