This paper reports the influence of adding oak chips to a wine being aged either in stainless steel tanks or in used barrels on aroma compounds, comparing these wines with those aged in new barrels. Both the size of the oak chips and the length of contact time were considered. Aroma compounds were analysed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry to determine the differences in these compounds between the samples. The results showed that chips release aroma compounds into wine very rapidly, an effect that was clearly seen when they were added to the wines stored in tanks. The wines aged in new barrels continued to extract aroma compounds for a longer time, and higher concentrations were reached in these wines for most aroma compounds. Wines in used barrels with added oak chips behaved in an intermediate manner. Although overall quality is better in wines matured in new barrels, the use of oak chips could be considered a good choice for producing short-aged wines and for reusing used barrels under good sanitary conditions. The rapid spread of technique alternatives to oak ageing justifies studies to assess the influence of oak chips on the chemical characteristics of wines and to evaluate any differences from traditional oak ageing systems. (We recommend that you consult the full text of this article)