Claudia NIOI1, Fabrice MEUNIER1,2 , Pascaline REDON1, Laurent RIQUIER1, Arnaud MASSOT3,Virginie MOINE3
1 Unite´ de Recherche nologie, EA 4577, USC 1366 INRAE, Univ. Bordeaux, Bordeaux INP, ISVV, F33882 Villenave d’Ornon France
2 Amarante Process-ADERA
3 Biolaffort, 33270 FLOIRAC France
Email contact: claudia.nioi[@]u-bordeaux.fr
AIM: Oxidation processes constitute a main problem in winemaking. Oxidation result in color browning and varietal aroma loss, which are key attributes of wine organoleptic quality . Despite the mechanisms involved in wine oxidation have been extensively reviewed , the protection of wine against oxidative spoilage remains one of the main goals of winemaking. Moreover, oxidation of young white wines become particularly critical mostly when low levels of SO2 are used. SO2 is indeed one of the most efficient wine antioxidants used to prevent oxidation and microbial spoilage. However, intolerances caused by SO2 have led to the reduction of its concentration in wines. In a competitive global winemaking market strategy, it is crucial to reduce or even eliminate the use of SO2 and to search for new healthier strategies. In the last decade, Yeast Derivatives (YDs) were proposed as a new strategy to control wine oxidation . These products are obtained from yeasts by autolytic or hydrolytic processes and dried to obtain the commercial products. The aim of this work was to carry out a preliminary investigation of YDs with different composition on (i) their capacity to prevent oxidation of white wine in comparison with conventional treatment with SO2 and (ii) to evaluate their impact on wine quality.
METHODS: 2 YDs were used for all the experiments: a YDR naturally rich in reducing compounds and a YDL naturally rich in lipids. White wines vinified with no sulfite additions were supplemented with one of the YD and submitted at low and high oxidation: 4 mg/L and 8 mg/L of dissolved O2 respectively. A Pyroscience optical O2 sensor was used for the dissolved oxygen monitoring. Wines analyses were performed after the complete oxygen consumption: wine analysis (Foss), color (CIELab), glutathione (GSH, HPLC-fluo), ethanal (GC-MS), redox potential (cyclic voltammetry), sensorial analysis. These results were compared with those obtained for wines with no antioxidant treatment and with SO2 addition.
RESULTS: Results showed that yeast derivatives and SO2 permit to reduce the O2 consumption rate of 55 and 60% respectively than the untreated control without antioxidant. In comparison with the control wines, YD have an impact on color but they allow the reduction of wine browning. Voltammetry analyses showed that the wines treated by YD have a voltammetric profile suggesting that they are more resistant to oxidation than the untreated control. This behavior is comparable to wines treated with SO2. In addition, wines treated with YD present a lower ethanol amount than the control and SO2 wines. The YD naturally rich in reducing compounds show better preservation of wine’s GSH content. Finally, during wine sensorial analysis, the tasters prefer wines treated with YD than wine without treatment.
CONCLUSIONS: This work opens new perspectives for the development of yeast preparations usable as alternatives or as complements to sulfites and allows the improvement of white wines oxidative stability.
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