COINOCULATION OF YEASTS AND LACTIC ACID BACTERIA FOR THE ORGANOLEPTIC IMPROVEMENT OF WINES AND FOR THE REDUCTION OF BIOGENIC AMINE PRODUCTION DURING THE MALOLACTIC FERMENTATION
MASQUÉ M.C., ROMERO S.V., RICO S., ELÓRDUY X., PUIG A., CAPDEVILA F., SUÁREZ C., HERAS J.M., PALACIOS A.T.
Currently a large part of authors are in agreement with the affirmation that the best way to control the malolactic fermentation (MLF) in wines is by inducing it using selected starter cultures. On the market there are many different selected cultures of lactic acid bacteria for the induction of the MLF in wines; for the large part these are cultures of strains isolated from wines which belong to the species Oenococcus oeni.
In the last 15 years these commercial cultures and their use have greatly developed. However, there continue to be problems in the dynamics of the MLF with consequent organoleptic deviations. With the goal of searching to resolve at least part of these problems there have been trials completed which involved the induction of the MLF during the alcoholic fermentation (AF) using lactic acid bacteria inoculums at different times of the AF.
The objective being that of increasing the speed of the process and conferring an earlier microbiological stability to the wine, thus minimizing the risks of alterations or the appearance of biogenic amines or other toxic compounds, and obtaining an organoleptic improvement of the wines.
Trials were completed on 2 grape varieties, Tempranillo and Merlot, with 3 bacterial strains, 2 of the species Oenococcus oeni and 1 of the species Lactobacillus plantarum. The results obtained for the coinoculation trials were compared with those obtained from the sequential inoculation (once the AF was finished). No influence was observed of the LAB on the progression of the AF.
In general, the earlier the coinoculation the faster the MLF occurs, thus obtaining wines with less evident lactic aromas and a higher quantity of varietal aromas. Furthermore, the formation of biogenic amines seems to be higher when the establishment of the inoculated strain is lesser and the contact time of the bacteria with the lees is greater.
Published on 09/24/2008
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